OCGA ; constitutional question. He admitted that he wore the mask, but challenged the constitutionality of the statute, alleging that it is unconstitutionally vague and overbroad, and violates his freedom of speech and association under the United States and Georgia constitutions. The trial court held the statute to be unconstitutional and dismissed the case. In this appeal Miller argues 1 that the statute is unconstitutional as applied to him because wearing a mask is symbolic speech protected under the First Amendment to the United States Constitution and Art.
Throughout its notorious history, factions of the secret fraternal organization have used acts of terrorism—including murder, lynching, arson, rape, and bombing—to oppose the granting of civil rights to African Americans.
Deriving its membership from native-born, white Protestant U. They developed the first two words of the group's name from the Greek word kuklos, meaning "group or band," and took the third as a variant of the word clan. Starting as a largely recreational group, the Klan soon turned to intimidating newly freed African Americans.
Riding at night, the Klan terrorized and sometimes murdered those it opposed. Members adopted a hooded white costume—a guise intended to represent the ghosts of the Confederate dead—to avoid identification and to frighten victims during nighttime raids.
The Klan fed off the post- Civil War resentments of white southerners—resentment that centered on the Reconstruction programs imposed on the South by a Republican Congress. Under Reconstruction, the North sought to restructure southern society on the basis of racial equality.
Under this new regime, leading southern whites were disfranchised, while inexperienced African Americans, carpetbaggers northerners who had migrated to the South following the warand scalawags southerners who cooperated with the North occupied major political offices.
Shortly after the KKK's formation, Nathan Bedford Forresta former slave trader and Confederate general, assumed control of the organization and turned it into a militaristic, hierarchical entity. InForrest formally disbanded the group after he became appalled by its growing violence. However, the KKK continued to grow, and its atrocities worsened.
Drawing the core of its membership from ex-Confederate soldiers, the KKK may have numbered several hundred thousand at its height during Reconstruction. Inthe federal government took a series of steps to counter the KKK and its violence.
Congress organized a joint select committee made up of seven senators and 14 representatives to look into the Klan and its activities. It then passed the civil rights act offrequently referred to as the ku klux klan act, which made night-riding a crime and empowered the president to order the use of federal troops to put down conspirators by force.
The law also provided criminal and civil penalties for people convicted of private conspiracies—such as those perpetrated by the KKK—intended to deny others their civil rights.
Black is remembered as a distinguished U. Supreme Court justice, a progressive U. Senator, and an able trial attorney.
Public disclosure of this fact came shortly after his appointment to the Supreme Court was confirmed by the Senate in The resulting public uproar would probably have doomed his Court appointment if the disclosure had come just a few weeks earlier.
In Black was a trial attorney in Birmingham, Alabama, which at the time was controlled by members of the Klan. After rebuffing membership several times, he joined the KKK on September 23, Black later claimed to have left the group after several years, but no clear evidence documented his departure.
In there were allegations he had signed an undated letter resigning from the Klan, which was to have been used to establish a false resignation date if public scandal occurred. In Black made a radio address to the nation, in which he admitted his Klan membership but claimed he had resigned and had not had any connection with the group for many years.
He also stated he harbored no prejudice against anyone because of their race, religion, or ethnicity.
During his Court career, Black was reluctant to discuss his KKK membership and offered various reasons for why he had joined. To some people he admitted it was a mistake, whereas to others he said the KKK was just another fraternal organization, like the Masons or Elks.
It is clear, however, that as an ambitious politician, Black had sought Klan support for his political campaigns. Despite his later denial of holding any prejudices, Black was an active member of the KKK for several years.
He participated in Klan events throughout Alabama, wearing the organization's characteristic white robes and hood, and initiated new Klan members into the Invisible Empire, reading the Klan oath, which pledged the members to "most zealously and valiantly shield and preserve by any and all justifiable means … white supremacy.
Also inPresident ulysses s. In October and November of that year, the federal Circuit Court for the District of South Carolina held a series of trials of KKK members suspected of having engaged in criminal conspiracies, but the trials resulted in few convictions.
The Klan declined in influence as the s wore on. Arrests, combined with the return of southern whites to political dominance in the South, diminished its activity and influence. Resurgence The KKK experienced a resurgence after world war i, reaching a peak of 3 or 4 million members in the s.
The movie depicted the Klan as a heroic force defending the "Aryan birthright" of white southerners against African Americans and Radical Republicans seeking to build a Black Empire in the South. In particular, the movie showed a gallant Klan defending the honor of white women threatened by lecherous African American men.
Later, Christian fundamentalist ministers aided recruitment as the Klan portrayed itself as the protector of traditional values during the Jazz Age. As its membership grew into the millions in the s, the Klan exerted considerable political influence, helping to elect sympathetic candidates to state and national offices.
Strongly opposed to non—Anglo-Saxon immigration, the Klan helped secure the passage of strict quotas on immigration. In addition to being racist, the group also espoused hatred of Jews, Catholics, socialists, and unions.
By the end of the s, a backlash against the KKK had developed.The purpose of the anti-mask statute is to unmask the Ku Klux Klan; not to prevent masked crimes. The trial court found, and it is undisputed, that the statute "was .
The Ku Klux Klan has been the most organized of the many different White supremacy groups that came into being after the Civil War. The ill-reputed Knights of the Klan have been involved in countless incidents of human rights violations against blacks and other minority groups in America.
E. The Massive Case Of Collective Amnesia: The FBI Has Been Political From The Start. Oct 30, · Kenneth T. Jackson's book, The Ku Klux Klan in the City, , is an effective and valuable look at the second Klan movement. In the book, Jackson looks at the Klan's success in capturing political power in urban centers in the South and the North, and describes the Klan's actions in the political sphere.
Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state. Masonic conspiracy theories are conspiracy theories involving Freemasonry; hundreds of such conspiracy theories have been described since the late 18th century.
That groups such as the Ku Klux Klan and the Orange Order are intimately tied to Freemasonry. Religious.