Netizen reactions ranged from nationalistic to bemused.
Table of Contents Definitions Attacks Against Israel Toxicity As noted in the previous section, the toxicity of chemical agents generally falls somewhere in-between that of the more deadly biological agents and that of conventional weapons, or at the lower end of the scale for weapons of mass destruction.
For example, Kupperman and Trent estimate that, based on "the weight required to produce heavy casualties within a square-mile area under idealized conditions," fuel-air explosives require million grams; fragmentation cluster bombs, 32 million; hydrocyanic acid, 32 million; mustard gas, 3.
Similarly, it has been estimated that it would take grams of the "V" nerve agent, or almost 40 pounds of potassium cyanide, to have an effect on a water supply equivalent to just one gram of typhoid culture SCJ As in the case of biological agents, different types of chemical agents vary considerably in their lethality.
Of the two principal categories of chemical toxins, fluoroacetates and organophosphorous compounds, the latter are widely considered the more lethal At one end of the scale is DFP diisopropyl fluorophosphatedescribed as a "relatively mild poison" Mullen Another possible chemical agent, the organophosphate TEPP, is the most toxic of the commercially available insecticides Jenkins and Rubin The nerve agent sarin, on the other hand, when taken orally, is ten times as toxic as TEPP to humans; according to Berkowitz et al.: A minute after the burst, anyone in an area of over 70, square feet around the burst will have received at least a median lethal dose, and probably much more than that.
In a confined space banquet hall, auditoriumthe effects will be even greater. According to Douglass and Livingstone, "The amount of VX a nerve agent that one can place on the head of a pin is sufficient to produce death in a human being" Livingstone reports that "In tests conducted by the army, one drop of VX absorbed through the skin was enough to kill a dog" Also as in the case of biological agents, it would be equally misleading to extrapolate directly from individual lethal doses to estimates of casualties from mass attacks, given the need for effective delivery.
Chemical weapons such as nerve agents are generally credited with being capable of causing casualties in the range of hundreds to a few thousand Kupperman and Trent A few authors put the total much higher, in the same range as for biological or even nuclear weapons.
Thus, for example, Douglass and Livingstone write that "Four tons of VX is enough to cause several hundred thousand deaths if released in aerosol form in a crowded urban area" Clark goes even further, stating that "A canister [of VX] dropped from any tall building or sprayed over a large city from a private plane would kill millions" However, most authors appear to agree with Berkowitz et al.
The final characteristic of chemical agents that should be noted here is that, in contrast to biological agents, their effects can be virtually instantaneous. According to another source, a one-milligram dose of a nerve agent "can usually kill within 15 minutes" Joyner Putative Advantages of Chemical Weapons Despite not being as toxic as the most lethal biological agents, chemical weapons have certain other advantages that may make them more attractive to terrorists.
A number of authors maintain that they are cheaper than biological agents Douglass and Livingstone There can be no doubt, of course, that the manufacture of chemical weapons would be much less expensive than the manufacture of nuclear weapons, for terrorists or for anyone else.
It has also been said that chemical agents are "easier to use" than biological agents Douglass and Livingstone This rather vague claim could refer to a number of different aspects. Among those noted by Douglass and Livingstone are their "stability" and the fact that they are "more containable," easily dispersed, and "controllable" "inasmuch as they are not contagious" Alexander agrees that "their delivery systems are manageable, and their dispersal techniques are efficient" On this latter point Mullins elaborates: The delivery of chemical agents could be accomplished with exact precision, thus insuring that only the target audience was affected" On the other hand, Mengel argues that, by comparison to biological agents, "chemical technologies The issue of deliverability will be dealt with at greater length below.
In contrast to what was said above about the effects of some chemical agents being virtually instantaneous, Mullins maintains that "One major advantage of chemical agents over nuclear devices or biological agents is that by using the right chemicals, any effects could be delayed for a period of time.
That is, the agent could be dispersed and it could be days or weeks before any effects appeared" Why this should be greater in the case of chemical than of biological weapons is unclear.
In any case, it is presumably at least partly on this basis that Mullins goes on to cite another putative advantage in using chemical weapons, that "there is minimal risk of detection" Perhaps also related to this factor or to that of "controllability," in the sense of being non-contagiousMullins also states that chemical agents "offer low risk for usage" In discussing the presumed advantages of chemical weapons, Mullins appears to contradict himself on another point, however.
On the one hand, he argues:The early modern period in Britain saw religious conflict resulting from the Reformation and the introduction of Protestant state churches. The Gunpowder Plot was a failed attempt by a group of English Catholics including Guy Fawkes to assassinate King James I, and to blow up the Palace of Westminster, the English seat of government.
According to Vahabph D. Aghai, "The beginnings of.
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The dispute that has seen Saudi Arabia and its Gulf allies isolate Qatar stems from allegations that the tiny gas-rich nation is sponsoring extremist groups which are destabilising the Middle East.
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