The nature of precedent

More Essay Examples on Common law Rubric The doctrine of precedent is usually defined by the Latin phrase, which has formed the doctrine of precedent as it stands now: The doctrine consists of some elements, the first of which is the role of the judicial hierarchy.

The nature of precedent

Association football[ edit ] In association footballan own goal occurs when a player causes the ball to go into his or her own team's goalresulting in a goal being scored for the opposition.

Defenders often "turn behind" dangerous balls into the penalty area, particularly crosses, by kicking or heading the ball out of play behind their goal-line. In this way, the defender's aim is to concede a corner rather than giving attacking players scoring opportunities.

Consequently, the defender may misjudge and inadvertently turn the ball into his own goal, particularly if he is under pressure from attacking players who might otherwise score. The defending player who scored the own goal is personally "credited" with the goal as part of the statistical abstract of the game.

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The credit is annotated " og " to indicate its nature. The Laws of the Game stipulate that an own goal cannot be scored directly from most methods of restarting the game; instead, a corner kick is awarded to the attacking team. This is the case for the kick-off[3] goal kick[nb 1] [nb 2] dropped-ball since [5]throw-in[6] corner kick, [nb 2] [10] and free kick indirect and direct.

The Clarets, however, gave the goal to Gareth Taylor ". Occasionally, it is also credited to the closest player to the goal from the other team if he is determined to have caused the opposing player to shoot it into the wrong net.

Assists are not awarded on an own goal because the defending team has possession of the puck between any pass and the goal itself. Occasionally in the NHLplayers have directed the puck into their own empty neteither late in the game or because of a delayed penalty call.

In some parts of Canadaan own goal is referred to as a limoges. The term is believed to have originated in New Brunswick approximately and became more common in the greater Toronto region starting in the s[ citation needed ].

Field hockey[ edit ] Treatment of "own goals" in field hockey has varied over recent years.

The nature of precedent

In the International Hockey Federation FIH implemented a "mandatory experiment" such that a deflection of a shot from outside the shooting circle from a defender would be equivalent to a touch from an attacker, and thus if the shot continued into the goal the score would be counted.

This proved unpopular and the change was reversed. Basketball[ edit ] When accidentally scoring at an opposing team's basket basketball's equivalent of an "own goal"the goal is credited to an offensive player.

One typical own-goal scenario occurs when a player tries to block a goal shot but ends up knocking the ball into the goal. In NFHS basketball, the two points are merely listed for the scoring team, as a footnote.

In NCAA basketball, the rules state: Such a field goal shall not be credited to a player in the scorebook but shall be indicated with a footnote. Under FIBA rules, the player designated captain is credited with the basket. American football[ edit ] When a ball carrier is tackled or exits the field of play within the end zone being defended by his team, the result is a safety and the opposing team is awarded two points, and receives the ball after a free kick taken at the twenty-yard line.

This does not apply if the ball carrier secures possession of the ball in the end zone as a result of an interception or a kick; in that case, no points are awarded and the play is considered a touchback. In Canadian football, if a scrimmage kick punt or missed field goal attempt is kicked into the end zone and the opponent does not advance it out, the kicking team is awarded a singleworth one point.

A true "own goal", in which the team place kicks or drop kicks the ball through their own goal posts which has never happened at any level in football history and would require either a very strong headwind or a deliberate act of sabotageis treated as any other backward kick in most leagues' rule books.

Backward kicks are treated as fumblesand as such, a backward kick through the back of the end zone, including through the goal posts, is scored as a safety.

This occurred in a game between two Texas high schools; a punter kicked against a strong wind that blew the ball backward into the end zone, where the defense took control of it.

Inthe New England Patriots came back to win a game after giving a safety that put them three points behind.An own goal is an event in competitive goal-scoring sports (such as association football or hockey) where a player scores on their own side of the playing area rather than the one defended by the goals sometimes result from the opponent's defensive strength, as when the player is stopped in the scoring area, [clarification needed] but .

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This means you're free to copy and share these . ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS. Arriving Aliens. Matter of Silitonga, 25 I&N Dec. 89 (BIA ). Under 8 C.F.R. ยงยงยง (a)(1) and (a)(1)(ii) (), Immigration Judges have no jurisdiction to adjudicate an application filed by an arriving alien seeking adjustment of status, with the limited exception of an alien who has been placed in removal proceedings after returning to the United States.

Badgeworth is one of the smallest nature reserves in the world and contains the rare adder's-tongue spearwort more commonly known as the Badgeworth buttercup.

Without Precedent - Kindle edition by Thomas H.

The nature of precedent

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