It has been created within the larger realm of post-colonial literaturealthough scholars distinguish between the two, saying that "African American literature differs from most post-colonial literature in that it is written by members of a minority community who reside within a nation of vast wealth and economic power. This oral poetry also appears in the African-American tradition of Christian sermonswhich make use of deliberate repetition, cadence, and alliteration.
In addition to commercial features, several Hollywood directors produced documentaries for government and military agencies.
The last three were shot on location and were made especially effective by their immediacy. Full-scale mobilization had ended the Depression domestically, and victory had opened vast, unchallenged markets in the war-torn economies of western Europe and Japan.
Furthermore, from throughHollywood had experienced the most stable and lucrative three years in its history, and inwhen two-thirds of the American population went to the movies at least once a week, the studios earned record-breaking profits.
The euphoria ended quickly, however, as inflation and labour unrest boosted domestic production costs and as important foreign markets, including Britain and Italy, were temporarily lost to protectionist quotas.
|Haapanen-Tallgren, Tyyni||McLaws' division of my corps moved out of Fredericksburg for Culpeper Courthouse, followed by Ewell's corps on the 4th and 5th of June.|
|Decline of the Hollywood studios||Henry James, age 11, with his father, Henry James Sr. His father was intelligent, steadfastly congenial, and a lecturer and philosopher who had inherited independent means from his father, an Albany banker and investor.|
|The fear of communism||Colonial literature[ edit ] Because of the large immigration to Boston in the s, the articulation of Puritan ideals, and the early establishment of a college and a printing press in Cambridgethe New England colonies have often been regarded as the center of early American literature.|
Although the studios continued to produce traditional genre films, such as westerns and musicals, their financial difficulties encouraged them to make realistic small-scale dramas rather than fantastic lavish epics. Instead of depending on spectacle and special effects to create excitement, the new lower-budget films tried to develop thought-provoking or perverse stories reflecting the psychological and social problems besetting returning war veterans and others adapting to postwar life.
On November 24,a group of eight screenwriters and two directors, later known as the Hollywood Tenwere sentenced to serve up to a year in prison for refusing to testify.
That evening the members of the Association of Motion Picture Producers, which included the leading studio heads, published what became known as the Waldorf Declaration, in which they fired the members of the Hollywood Ten and expressed their support of HUAC.
The studios, afraid to antagonize already shrinking audiences, then initiated an unofficial policy of blacklistingrefusing to employ any person even suspected of having communist associations. Hundreds of people were fired from the industry, and many creative artists were never able to work in Hollywood again.
Throughout the blacklisting era, filmmakers refrained from making any but the most conservative motion pictures; controversial topics or new ideas were carefully avoided. The threat of television The film industry believed that the greatest threat to its continued success was posed by television, especially in light of the Paramount decrees.
In the —53 season, the ability to produce multiple-track stereophonic sound joined this list. In the late s, fewer than 12 percent of Hollywood features were produced in colour, primarily because of the expense of three-strip Technicolor filming.
By more than 50 percent of American features were made in colour, and the figure reached 94 percent by The aspect ratio the ratio of width to height of the projected motion-picture image had been standardized at 1. For both optical and architectural reasons this change in size usually meant increased width, not increased height.
Early experiments with multiple-camera wide-screen Cineramaand stereoscopic 3-D Natural Visionprovoked audience interest, but it was an anamorphic process called CinemaScope that prompted the wide-screen revolution.
By the end ofevery Hollywood studio but Paramount had leased a version of the process from Fox Paramount adopted a nonanamorphic process called VistaVision that exposed double-frame images by running film through special cameras and projectors horizontally rather than verticallyand many studios were experimenting with wide-gauge film systems e.
Like the coming of sound, the conversion to wide-screen formats produced an initial regression as filmmakers learned how to compose and edit their images for the new elongated frame.
Sound had promoted the rise of aurally intensive genres such as the musical and the gangster film, and the wide-screen format similarly created a bias in favour of visually spectacular subjects and epic scale.
Given the political paranoia of the times, few subjects could be treated seriously, and the studios concentrated on presenting traditional genre fare—westerns, musicals, comedies, and blockbusters—suitable for wide-screen treatment.
Only a director like Hitchcockwhose style was oblique and imagist, could prosper in such a climate. Because they could no longer dominate the exhibition sector, they faced serious competition for the first time from independent and foreign filmmakers.
The minor companies, however, owned modest studio facilities and had lost nothing by the Paramount decrees because they controlled no theatres.
They were thus able to prosper during this era, eventually becoming major companies themselves in the s. Although it had roots in both Soviet expressive realism and French poetic realism, Neorealism was decidedly national in focus, taking as its subject the day-to-day reality of a country traumatized by political upheaval and war.
The film featured both professional and nonprofessional actors and focused on ordinary people caught up in contemporary events. Its documentary texture, postrecorded sound track, and improvisational quality became the hallmark of the Neorealist movement.
In many respects it is more exemplary of the movement than Ossessione, and it is widely regarded as a masterpiece. It also heralded the practices of shooting on location using natural lighting and postsynchronizing sound that later became standard in the film industry. Federico Fellini had worked as a scriptwriter for Rossellini before directing in the s an impressive series of films whose form was Neorealist but whose content was allegorical I vitelloni [The Loafers], ; La strada [The Road], ; Le notti di Cabiria [Nights of Cabiria], Accordingly, his first films were Neorealist documentary shorts Gente del Po [People of the Po],but during the s he turned increasingly to an examination of the Italian bourgeoisie in such films as Cronaca di un amore ; Story of a Love AffairLa signora senza camelie ; Camille Without Camelliasand Le amiche ; The Girlfriendsand in the early s Antonioni produced a trilogy on the malaise of the middle class that made him internationally famous.
Antonioni then began to use colour expressionistically in Deserto rosso ; Red Desert and Blow-Up to convey alienation and abstraction from human feeling, and all of his later works in some way concerned the breakdown of personal relationships Zabriskie Point, ; Identificazione di una donna [Identification of a Woman], and of identity itself Professione: Reporter [The Passenger], Matthewa brilliant semidocumentary reconstruction of the life of Christ with Marxist overtones.
Like Pasolini, Bernardo Bertolucci was a Marxist intellectual whose films attempt to correlate sexuality, ideologyand history; his most successful films were Il conformista ; The Conformista striking dissection of the psychopathology of fascism, Ultimo tango a Parigi ; Last Tango in Parisa meditation on sex and death, and Novecento ;a six-hour epic covering 50 years of Italian class conflict.The movie has an important place in American history—and the history of LIF.
Many critics are still attempting to decode its literary significance and establish its contributions to the study of early African-American literature.
Both works spoke about Lee's life as a preacher for the African Methodist Church. but she was also known as a strong advocate against slavery and the post-Civil War repressive measures.
John Milton Hay was born in Salem, Indiana, on October 8, He was the third son of Dr. Charles Hay and the former Helen Leonard. Charles Hay, born in Lexington, Kentucky, hated slavery and moved to the North in the early s.A doctor, he practiced in Salem.
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American Literary periods/ British Literary Period. American and British literary periods, brief overview The post-Civil War period was an era of increased. + free ebooks online. Did you know that you can help us produce ebooks by proof-reading just one page a day?
Go to: Distributed Proofreaders. Apr 26, · James Longstreet's 1st Article About the Gettysburg Campaign for the Philadelphia Times Longstreet sought to reply to post-war charges that he disobeyed Lee's orders at the Battle of Gettysburg, leveled at him by Jubal Early and others, through this article that was published in the Philadelphia Times in November of