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Pacific decadal oscillation to The ocean and atmosphere can work together to spontaneously generate internal climate variability that can persist for years to decades at a time. For example, alterations to ocean processes such as thermohaline circulation play a key role in redistributing heat in the world's oceans.
Due to the long timescales of this circulation, ocean temperature at depth is still adjusting to effects of the Little Ice Age  which occurred between the and s.
A schematic of modern thermohaline circulation. Tens of millions of years ago, continental-plate movement formed a land-free gap around Antarctica, allowing the formation of the ACCwhich keeps warm waters away from Antarctica. Life Life affects climate through its role in the carbon and water cycles and through such mechanisms as albedoevapotranspirationcloud The changes in the world fromand weathering.
Variations in CO2temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the lastyears Human influences Main article: Global warming In the context of climate variation, anthropogenic factors are human activities which affect the climate. The scientific consensus on climate change is "that climate is changing and that these changes are in large part caused by human activities",  and it "is largely irreversible".
While much remains to be learned, the core phenomenon, scientific questions, and hypotheses have been examined thoroughly and have stood firm in the face of serious scientific debate and careful evaluation of alternative explanations. This is due to emissions from fossil fuel combustion, followed by aerosols particulate matter in the atmosphereand the CO2 released by cement manufacture.
Milankovitch cycles Slight variations in Earth's motion lead to changes in the seasonal distribution of sunlight reaching the Earth's surface and how it is distributed across the globe. There is very little change to the area-averaged annually averaged sunshine; but there can be strong changes in the geographical and seasonal distribution.
The three types of kinematic change are variations in Earth's eccentricitychanges in the tilt angle of Earth's axis of rotationand precession of Earth's axis. Combined together, these produce Milankovitch cycles which affect climate and are notable for their correlation to glacial and interglacial periods their correlation with the advance and retreat of the Sahara and for their appearance in the stratigraphic record.
Upon seawater temperature change, the solubility of CO2 in the oceans changed, as well as other factors affecting air-sea CO2 exchange.
The period of extraordinarily few sunspots in the late 17th century was the Maunder minimum. The Sun is the predominant source of energy input to the Earth. Other sources include geothermal energy from the Earth's core, tidal energy from the Moon and heat from the decay of radioactive compounds.
Both long- and short-term variations in solar intensity are known to affect global climate. However, there is evidence for the presence of water on the early Earth, in the Hadean   and Archean   eons, leading to what is known as the faint young Sun paradox.
The Great Oxygenation Event —oxygenation of the atmosphere around 2. Over the next five billion years from the present, the Sun's ultimate death as it becomes a red giant and then a white dwarf will have large effects on climate, with the red giant phase possibly ending any life on Earth that survives until that time.
Values since not shown. Solar output varies on shorter time scales, including the year solar cycle  and longer-term modulations. The cyclical nature of the Sun's energy output is not yet fully understood; it differs from the very slow change that is happening within the Sun as it ages and evolves.
Some studies point toward solar radiation increases from cyclical sunspot activity affecting global warming, and climate may be influenced by the sum of all effects solar variation, anthropogenic radiative forcingsetc. The next step is to find more about these trace vapours, including whether they are of natural or human origin.
The eruptions considered to be large enough to affect the Earth's climate on a scale of more than 1 year are the ones that inject overtons of SO2 into the stratosphere.
The eruption of Mount Pinatubo inthe second largest terrestrial eruption of the 20th century, affected the climate substantially, subsequently global temperatures decreased by about 0.
However, because smaller eruptions occur at a much higher frequency, they too significantly affect Earth's atmosphere. In climate modelling the aim is to study the physical mechanisms and feedbacks of volcanic forcing. Over very long geological time periods, they release carbon dioxide from the Earth's crust and mantle, counteracting the uptake by sedimentary rocks and other geological carbon dioxide sinks.
The US Geological Survey estimates are that volcanic emissions are at a much lower level than the effects of current human activities, which generate — times the amount of carbon dioxide emitted by volcanoes.
The annual amount put out by human activities may be greater than the amount released by supererruptionsthe most recent of which was the Toba eruption in Indonesia 74, years ago. Plate tectonics Over the course of millions of years, the motion of tectonic plates reconfigures global land and ocean areas and generates topography.
This can affect both global and local patterns of climate and atmosphere-ocean circulation.Climate Photo of the Week As Australia suffers under some of the most devastating effects of rapid climate change, scientists find their predictions of threats to World Heritage forests and coral reefs are coming true, inspiring new experiments and programs to help them survive.
May 14, · Mix - Dave Mason - World in Changes YouTube We Just Disagree - Dave Mason, Mark Farner, Rick Derringer and John Sambataro - Duration: Mark Pastoria , views. A field team from the Carnegie Institute for Science collects critical coral reef spectral data to calibrate Planet Dove satellites for the Allen Coral Atlas.
(Carnegie Institute Photo / Chris. What are the main states of matter? Everyone should know about solids, liquids, gases, and rutadeltambor.comists have always known about solids, liquids, and gases. Plasma was a new idea when it was identified by William Crookes in The world’s platform for change.
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