Production of silicon chips essay

External Defibrillator Background An external defibrillator is a device that delivers an electric shock to the heart through the chest wall. This shock helps restore the heart to a regular, healthy rhythm. The device is generally sold as a kit that consists of a power control unit, paddle electrodes, and various accessories. The parts are made individually and pieced together via an integrated production process.

Production of silicon chips essay

Nonmetals - Real-life applications Boron The first "orphan" nonmetal, by atomic number, is boron, named after the Arabic word buraq or the Persian burah. It is thus unusual in being one of the only elements whose name is not based on a word from a European language, or—for the later elements—the name of a person or place.

These scientists used the reaction of boric acid H 3 BO 3 with potassium to isolate the element. Sometimes classified as a metalloid because it is a semiconductor of electricity, boron is applied in filaments used in fiber optics research. Few of its other applications, however, have much to do with electrical conductivity.

Boric or boracic acid is used as a mild antiseptic, and in North America, it is applied for the control of cockroaches, silverfish, and other pests. A compound known as borax is a water softener in washing powders, while other compounds are used to produce enamels for the coating of refrigerators and other appliances.

Compounds involving boron are also present in pyrotechnic flares, because they emit a distinctive green color, and in the igniters of rockets. Nitrogen Though most people think of air as consisting primarily of oxygen, in fact—as noted above—the greater part of the air we breathe is made up of nitrogen.

Scottish chemist David Rutherford is usually given credit for discovering the element: Several other scientists around the same time made a similar discovery. Because of its heavy presence in air, nitrogen is obtained primarily by cooling air to temperatures below the boiling points of its major components.

Nitrogen boils that is, turns into a gas at a lower temperature than oxygen: The nitrogen gas is captured, cooled, and liquefied once more.

Nitrogen can also be obtained from compounds such as potassium nitrate or saltpeter, found primarily in India; or sodium nitrate Chilean saltpeterwhich comes from the desert regions of Chile.

To isolate nitrogen, various processes are undertaken in a laboratory—for instance, heating barium azide or sodium azide, both of which contain nitrogen.

Existing as diatomic molecules, nitrogen forms very strong triple bonds, and as a result tends to be fairly unreactive at low temperatures. Thus, for instance, when a substance burns, it reacts with the oxygen in the air, but not with the nitrogen. At high temperatures, however, nitrogen combines with other elements, reacting with metals to form nitrides; with hydrogen to form ammonia; with O 2 to form nitrites; and with O 3 to form nitrates.

Nitrogen and oxygen, in particular, react at high temperatures to form numerous compounds: In reaction with halogens, nitrogen forms unstable, explosive compounds such as nitrogen trifluoride NF 3nitrogen trichloride NCl 3and nitrogen triiodide NI 3.

One thing is for sure: Together, these two produce chloramines, gases with poisonous vapors. One of the most striking scenes in a memorable film, "Terminator 2: Judgment Day"occurs near the end of the movie, when the villainous T robot steps into a pool of liquid nitrogen and cracks to pieces.

As noted, nitrogen must be at extremely low temperatures to assume liquid form. Liquid nitrogen, which accounts for about one-third of all commercial uses of the element, is applied for quick-freezing foods, and for preserving foods in transit. Liquid nitrogen also makes it possible to process materials, such as some forms of rubber, that are too pliable for machining at room temperature.

These materials are first cooled in liquid nitrogen, and then become more rigid. In processing iron or steel, which forms undesirable oxides if exposed to oxygen, a blanket of nitrogen is applied to prevent this reaction. The same principle is applied in making computer chips and even in processing foods, since these items too are detrimentally affected by oxidation.

Because it is far less combustible than air magnesium is one of the few elements that burns nitrogen in combustionnitrogen is also used to clean tanks that have carried petroleum or other combustible materials. As noted, nitrogen combines with hydrogen to form ammonia, used in fertilizers and cleaning materials.

Ammonium nitrate, applied primarily as a fertilizer, is also a dangerous explosive, as shown with horrifying effect in the bombing of the Alfred P. Nor is ammonium nitrate the only nitrogen-based explosive. Nitric acid is used in making trinitrotoluene TNTnitroglycerin, and dynamite, as well as gunpowder and smokeless powder.

The nitrogen cycle is the process whereby nitrogen passes from the atmosphere into living things, and ultimately back into the atmosphere.

Production of silicon chips essay

Both through the action of lightning in the sky, and of bacteria in the soil, nitrogen is converted to nitrates and nitrites—compounds of nitrogen and oxygen. These are then absorbed by plants to form plant proteins, which convert to animal proteins in the bodies of animals who eat the plants.Spectre and Meltdown Attacks Against Microprocessors.

The security of pretty much every computer on the planet has just gotten a lot worse, and the only real solution -- which of course is not a solution -- is to throw them all away and buy new ones. USES FOR NITROGEN. One of the most striking scenes in a memorable film, "Terminator 2: Judgment Day" (), occurs near the end of the movie, when the villainous T robot steps into a pool of liquid nitrogen and cracks to pieces.

Copper (Cu) on the other hand is a ductile metal with very good electrical and thermal conductivity. However, the thermal expansion with µm/(m*K) is more than 6 times higher than silicon.

Money/Economic Documentaries When All Else Fails, Just Follow The Money Trails "If the American people ever allow private banks to control the issue of their currency, first by inflation, then by deflation, the banks will deprive the people of all property until their children wake-up homeless on the continent their fathers conquered.

A radio-frequency identification system uses tags, or labels attached to the objects to be identified. Two-way radio transmitter-receivers called interrogators or readers send a signal to the tag and read its response..

RFID tags can be either passive, active or battery-assisted passive. The metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET) is a type of field-effect transistor (FET), most commonly fabricated by the controlled oxidation of has an insulated gate, whose voltage determines the conductivity of the device.

This ability to change conductivity with the amount of applied voltage can be used for amplifying or switching electronic.

MOSFET - Wikipedia